Spatio-temporal parameters during the 30-second side-hop test in ACL reconstructed patients
Author(s):
Urhausen Anouk (Luxembourg)
,
Urhausen Anouk (Luxembourg)
Affiliations:
Meyer C.
,
Meyer C.
Affiliations:
Gette P.
,
Gette P.
Affiliations:
Mouton Caroline
,
Mouton Caroline
Affiliations:
Seil R.
,
Seil R.
Affiliations:
Theisen D.
Theisen D.
Affiliations:
ESSKA Academy. Urhausen A. 05/09/18; 209437; P05-1264 Topic: Biomechanics
Anouk Urhausen
Anouk Urhausen
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Abstract
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Objectives: The 30-second side-hop test is typically used in the return to sport decision after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). It evaluates the maximal number of unilateral side-jumps performed outside two parallel lines 40cm apart. This test is highly demanding, well standardized and easy to perform in a clinical setting. However, it does not take into account the quality of execution, which could be an alternate marker for the return to sport decision. This pilot study assessed for the first time the relevance of spatio-temporal variables as qualitative markers in the comparison of ACLR patients and a control group.

Methods: Fourteen previously active (age:24±7 years, mean±standard deviation) patients with unilateral ACLR (4 bone-patellar tendon-bone and 10 hamstring grafts) were prospectively recruited 9 months post-surgery. The control group included 15 healthy, active- and age-matched (25±4 years) volunteers, for whom the legs were randomly chosen as "operated" (OP) and "non-operated" (NOP). All participants performed the unilateral 30-second side-hop test, landing alternatively on one of two force plates (Arsalis 800x500, sampled at 1000Hz). The variables of interest derived from the force plate data were number of jumps, flight time (s), landing contact time (s), and jump distance (m), analysed separately for lateral and medial jumps. A mixed model analysis of variance was used to test for significant (p<0.05) group by leg (OP and NOP) interactions.

Results: No differences were found for the total number of jumps performed, which was 24.0±6.6 for NOP and 22.9±7.3 for OP in patients, and 27.8±4.9 for NOP and 27.1±4.5 for OP leg in controls. In patients, contact time in lateral and medial jumps, respectively, was 0.49±0.35s and 0.47±0.29s for NOP, and 0.53±0.36 and 0.54±0.38 for OP. In controls, contact time in lateral and medial jumps, respectively, was 0.36±0.09 and 0.34±0.08 for NOP and 0.37±0.10 and 0.35±0.13 for OP. No significant group by leg interactions were found for contact time, neither for the medial nor for the lateral jumps. Similar conclusions were found for flight time (results for lateral and medial jumps, respectively: in patients NOP 0.19±0.02s and 0.20±0.01s; OP 0.19±0.02s and 0.19±0.02s; in controls NOP 0.19±0.03s and 0.19±0.03s; OP 0.19±0.02s and 0.19±0.02s) and for jump distance (results for lateral and medial jumps, respectively: in patients NOP 0.58±0.04m and 0.59±0.03m; OP 0.57±0.03m and 0.58±0.03m; in controls NOP 0.60±0.04m and 0.60±0.04m; OP 0.60±0.04m and 0.59±0.04m).

Conclusions: Spatio-temporal variables during the 30-second side-hop test were not negatively influenced in this sample of well rehabilitated patients 9 months after ACLR. These data will be extended on a greater sample size and at longer term by including clinical data of complications (e.g. re-injuries) with a more in-depth analysis of other qualitative markers, such as ground reaction forces, joint motions, joint moments and muscle activation patterns.

Keywords:
anterior cruciate ligament, return to sport, hop test
Objectives: The 30-second side-hop test is typically used in the return to sport decision after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). It evaluates the maximal number of unilateral side-jumps performed outside two parallel lines 40cm apart. This test is highly demanding, well standardized and easy to perform in a clinical setting. However, it does not take into account the quality of execution, which could be an alternate marker for the return to sport decision. This pilot study assessed for the first time the relevance of spatio-temporal variables as qualitative markers in the comparison of ACLR patients and a control group.

Methods: Fourteen previously active (age:24±7 years, mean±standard deviation) patients with unilateral ACLR (4 bone-patellar tendon-bone and 10 hamstring grafts) were prospectively recruited 9 months post-surgery. The control group included 15 healthy, active- and age-matched (25±4 years) volunteers, for whom the legs were randomly chosen as "operated" (OP) and "non-operated" (NOP). All participants performed the unilateral 30-second side-hop test, landing alternatively on one of two force plates (Arsalis 800x500, sampled at 1000Hz). The variables of interest derived from the force plate data were number of jumps, flight time (s), landing contact time (s), and jump distance (m), analysed separately for lateral and medial jumps. A mixed model analysis of variance was used to test for significant (p<0.05) group by leg (OP and NOP) interactions.

Results: No differences were found for the total number of jumps performed, which was 24.0±6.6 for NOP and 22.9±7.3 for OP in patients, and 27.8±4.9 for NOP and 27.1±4.5 for OP leg in controls. In patients, contact time in lateral and medial jumps, respectively, was 0.49±0.35s and 0.47±0.29s for NOP, and 0.53±0.36 and 0.54±0.38 for OP. In controls, contact time in lateral and medial jumps, respectively, was 0.36±0.09 and 0.34±0.08 for NOP and 0.37±0.10 and 0.35±0.13 for OP. No significant group by leg interactions were found for contact time, neither for the medial nor for the lateral jumps. Similar conclusions were found for flight time (results for lateral and medial jumps, respectively: in patients NOP 0.19±0.02s and 0.20±0.01s; OP 0.19±0.02s and 0.19±0.02s; in controls NOP 0.19±0.03s and 0.19±0.03s; OP 0.19±0.02s and 0.19±0.02s) and for jump distance (results for lateral and medial jumps, respectively: in patients NOP 0.58±0.04m and 0.59±0.03m; OP 0.57±0.03m and 0.58±0.03m; in controls NOP 0.60±0.04m and 0.60±0.04m; OP 0.60±0.04m and 0.59±0.04m).

Conclusions: Spatio-temporal variables during the 30-second side-hop test were not negatively influenced in this sample of well rehabilitated patients 9 months after ACLR. These data will be extended on a greater sample size and at longer term by including clinical data of complications (e.g. re-injuries) with a more in-depth analysis of other qualitative markers, such as ground reaction forces, joint motions, joint moments and muscle activation patterns.

Keywords:
anterior cruciate ligament, return to sport, hop test
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