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Anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms in recreational skiing, are they different from competitive alpine skiing? A video analysis
ESSKA Academy. GARCIA-GERMAN D. Nov 8, 2019; 284443; epESMA-37 Topic: Sports Related Injuries
Dr. DIEGO GARCIA-GERMAN
Dr. DIEGO GARCIA-GERMAN
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Anterior cruciate ligament injury mechanisms in recreational skiing, are they different from competitive alpine skiing? A video analysis

ePoster - epESMA-37

Topic: Sports Trauma

Vazquez Alarcon S.1, Herrero Sierra V.1, Avila Lopez C.A.L.1, Garcia-German D.1,2
1Hospital Universitario de Puerta de Hierro-Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain, 2Real Federación Española de Deportes de Invierno, Madrid, Spain

Introduction: Anterior Cruciate Ligament injury mechanisms have been well described and documented in competitive alpine skiing by means of video analysis. Differences between competitive alpine skiing and recreational skiing are obvious. Injury mechanisms in ACL injury could also be different.
Objectives: To study the ACL injury mechanisms in recreational skiers and to compare them with data from ACL injury mechanisms in competitive skiers.
Material and methods: An internet search was performed to identify ACL injury videos in recreational skiers in video websites (YouTube and Vimeo). Search terms utilized were “anterior cruciate ligament and ski” in Spanish, French, Italian, German and English. 145 videos were revised. Only videos were it was clearly stated that an ACL injury had occurred were selected. Videos showing falls in competition, snowboarding, subjective videos, and those in which the injury mechanism was not clear were excluded. 33 videos were selected. Injury mechanism was classified according to Bere`s injury pattern: Slip-Catch, Dynamic Snowplow and Landing Back-Weighted.
Results: 12 (36%) of the cases could not be classified according to Bere´s types. 18 (55%) of the cases were related to jumps. Distribution was: Landing Back-Weighted: 15, Slip-Catch: 7, Non-Jump Related Landing Back-Weighted: 4, Very Low Speed Injury: 4, Not-determined: 3. One case was related to collision. No Dynamic Snowplow cases were found.
Discussion: Slip-catch mechanism is the most frequent ACL injury mechanism in competitive alpine skiing representing 50% of all cases, but Landing Back-Weighted after a jump is more frequent in recreational skiers. This could be biased by the fact that filming could be more frequent when performing jumps as opposed to filming during normal runs in a given slope.
We found injury mechanisms not described in competitive alpine skiing such as Very Low Speed Injuries and Non-Jump Related Landing Back-Weighted mechanism. We hypothesize this could be related to lower physical condition and improper skiing technique.
It is important to better know the injury mechanisms in ACL injuries in recreational skiers as opposed to competitive skiers in order to propose future specific prevention strategies.
Study limitations: No prove of ACL injury was obtained. Filming could be done in attractive situations (jumps) and not during standard alpine skiing and this could obviously bias the results.
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